The concept of the diode in the conventional sense: The diode (Greek: di, ‘two’, ‘double’; hodos ‘way’) is an electronic component with two poles. The term diode is used as a synonym for the term “uncontrolled rectifier”. A hygric diode, for example, is a membrane that has a confining effect on water transport. The water transport is rectified (one-way street), since the water can only pass the hygric diode in one direction. The hygric diode can therefore be compared to a mechanical check valve, since the latter only allows mass flow in one direction.
Entropy must be thought of as a quantity-like quantity (energy content) that can flow or be contained in bodies: Of two otherwise equal bodies, the one whose temperature is higher contains more entropy. If two bodies of different temperatures are in contact with each other, entropy flows from the warmer to the colder body; as a result, the temperatures of the two bodies also equalize.
The vapour pressure of the air depends on the amount of water in the air and the temperature. As the temperature rises, the steam pressure increases, we know this from the tea kettle that whistles when the water is hot enough. Because of the humidity and the temperatures, the vapour pressure inside and outside is different. The water vapour moves from the high to the low pressure, it also follows this gradient through the outer wall – it diffuses through. In summer the steam moves inside, in winter it moves outside. Therefore, exterior walls become damp in summer and dry in winter. The reflective membrane hinders the migration of water vapour into the interior of the building in summer and facilitates the escape of vapour to the outside in winter. This property (variable diffusion) makes the walls drier.
IR is the non-visible part of the long-wave thermal radiation between visible light and microwaves. The wavelengths of the IR are 780 nm to 1,000 µm. The range from 3 to 50 µm is called MIR (middle IR) as part of the IR-C. Of these, the range from 9.25 to 11.45 µm is relevant, which corresponds to temperatures from +40 to -20°C. Thermal radiation is absorbed and reflected by opaque components (A + R = 1). In contrast to conventional paints, processes of optical physics (radiation physics) take place in the reflective membrane due to the ceramic hollow beads. These processes are simplified and referred to as IR reflection. The result is higher and more uniform surface temperatures on the inside and reduced radiation losses on the outside – thus greater thermal comfort and lower heating energy requirements.
The term convection comes from the late Latin convectio, which can be translated as ‘to bring’, ‘to carry’. In this reference, the term here denotes a physical flow movement that takes place within a gaseous medium (fluid) and, on the other hand, the phenomenon that the smallest particles of a flow carry energy with them, such as thermal energy. Convection currents can be caused by air in the lower part of a living space being heated by a heater, creating a temperature difference between upstairs and downstairs.
The warm parts flowing upwards cool down here and sink down again. This creates convection flow. This process takes place both inside and outside the walls. Heat is transferred, inside to the wall surface, outside to the ambient air.
A thermal bridge (often colloquially referred to as a cold bridge) is an area in building components through which heat is transported to the outside more quickly than through the adjacent components. A distinction is made between constructive and geometric thermal bridges. Constructive thermal bridges result from constructions with materials of different thermal conductivity. Examples of this are reinforced concrete slab joints to external walls, ring beams or radiator niches.
Geometric thermal bridges occur when the inner surface is not the same as the outer surface, for example due to protrusions or corners in an otherwise homogeneous component. An example of this is the outside corner of the house, where the ratio of cold outside wall to warm inside wall is increasing.
Deposition of dark particles (black dust) on interior walls. In severe cases, the impression of sooting is created. The causes are not yet clear. However, since this effect occurs more frequently during the heating period, it is assumed that deposits of low-volatile organic compounds (so-called plasticizers) and other emitters are swirled by convection currents (see: Convection currents) and settle on walls and ceilings.
Transport of (heat) energy between areas of different temperature due to heat conduction in solid bodies such as the wall (the molecules collide with each other). The heat flow always flows from areas of higher energy to areas of lower energy, i.e. here: from warm to cold. The energy loss on this transport is also called transmission heat loss. These are determined by the heat transfer coefficient. Other forms of energy transfer are convection and radiation. The transmission can be reduced by reducing the radiation on the façade.
Capillarity is the term used to describe the behaviour of liquids in capillaries, also known as hair tubes. If the adhesion forces between the liquid and the capillary wall are greater than the cohesion forces between the molecules of the liquid, the liquid “creeps” into the capillary, even against gravity and the more the capillaries are / become narrow. If liquid is transported by this process from the material (e.g. masonry) to the surface, where it then evaporates, this is called capillary drying. The exterior plaster has a finer capillary system than the masonry, and the reflective membrane has a finer capillary system than the exterior plaster. This creates directional transport, resulting in drier walls.
Synonym for processes taking place in ClimateCoating® coatingsthat vary depending on external influences such as temperature and humidity. In chemistry, endothermic means that energy is absorbed or gained.
The brightness value is the reflectance of a specific color tone between black = 0 and white = 100. It indicates how far the shade in question is from the black or white point in its brightness. In colour guides, the lightness value is indicated next to the colour number. Neither the gloss level nor the binder used are decisive for the lightness value, but only the type and level of the colored pigmentation.
is regarded as a summary term for a high-quality dispersion, enriched with ceramic hollow spheres and activators of only 20-120 micrometers in size, which – in combination with monolithic masonry – triggers mutually dependent complex processes of building physics. These have a positive effect on moisture and heat transport and thus on the energy balance.