Single family house in Erlenbach 01

Single family house in Erlenbach

In this single-family house, the combination of solid construction with ClimateCoating® ThermoProtect and infrared heating with ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus ensures lower energy consumption than in the neighbouring house with a “better” U-value.

It is a single-family house. The wall construction consists of 24 cm porous concrete, inside and outside a total of 3.0 cm plaster and inside and outside coated with Thermo-Shield (i.e. outside with ClimateCoating® ThermoProtect and inside with Thermo-Shield Interior).

Heating is provided by IR (infrared) radiant panels, which consume primary energy-devil electric power and provide better thermal comfort than any convection heating can.

The infrared heating installed here, in combination with the IR reflective coating ClimateCoating®, creates maximum comfort and economy. For the period from March 2008 to March 2010, heating costs of less than € 450 p.a. have been verified.

At the same time, the evaluation of the measurement results leads the U-value theory ad absurdum. It is analytically and metrologically proven that the so-called U-value as a primary measure for the heating energy demand is a fantasy product.

The basis for the evaluation is a protocol from 2011 on measurements of the U-value of exterior walls of several single-family houses with different wall constructions. The measurements carried out prove the positive influence of Thermo-Shield Interior and ClimateCoating® ThermoProtect on the thermal resistance of exterior walls.

The task of the measurements was to prove the positive influence of ClimateCoating® on exterior walls with different wall constructions. Furthermore, the cooling behaviour as well as the warm-up phase of the air and the wall temperature should be determined.

The measurement locations were 2 single-family houses with different wall constructions. Measurements were taken on the west side of the house at a height of approx. 3-5m. All measurements were subject to largely the same conditions with a temperature difference between inside and outside of approx. 15°C. On the one hand, the TESTO 635 measuring device and the PT100 sensors were used. The wall structure of the neighbouring house consists of 36.5 cm aerated concrete, the U-value here is on average 0.30 W/m²K, as the manufacturer also specifies in his flyer.

From 20.02.2010 17:30 o’clock to 21.02.2010 9:00 o’clock different measured variables were measured in the room and outside:

  • – Indoor air temperature
  • – Air temperature outside
  • – Wall surface temperature inside
  • – “the U-value”
  • – rh [%]; probably the rel. Humidity outside
  • – Mat [%],the material moisture at unknown location

Here, among other things, one must ask the question as follows: What is being measured? Is it really the room air temperature? The wall surface temperatures rise because the IR heater emits heat radiation. In addition to the primary radiation, the secondary radiation also has an effect. This is the reason why even concealed wall surfaces that are not in the direct cone of the heater, e.g. behind an armchair, become warmer.

The sensor for the room air temperature therefore does not display the actual measured variable, but a higher value. This is because it is radiated in the same way and thus heated.

When it comes to radiation processes, the U-value theory is out of place. It merely adds to the confusion and dilution rather than providing a model explanatory contribution. This is because radiation processes are foreign to the nature of the U-value theory.

The room air temperature is not the determining variable when it comes to IR processes. This involves radiation physics in the wavelength range around 10 µm in the following cases:

  • – surfaces coated with thermoceramic membrane technology (IR reflection)
  • – Heating with heating systems based on the principle of heat radiation (IR heating)
  • – the combination of IR heating and IR reflective coating

By combining the IR heating with the ClimateCoating® coating, the occupants of the single-family house in Erlenbach achieved a high degree of energy efficiency as a result of comfort (higher surface temperatures, more temperature symmetry), faster heat-up, delayed cool-down – all with a “worse” U-value than the neighboring house.

Since 2015 you can read at “For the period March 2008 to March 2014 heating costs below 450 € p.a. are proven. Compared to a passive house according to EnEV2009. 30% less heating costs, 20% less construction costs, 50% less maintenance costs.” This contradicts the U-value theory, but this is the practice.

Church Schermerhorn 13

Church Schermerhorn

Adhesion, moisture behaviour

After a 3-year test between 2013 and 2016, measuring the adhesion of ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus and the change in moisture levels in the solid church walls, it was decided to treat the inside of the church with ClimateCoating®. The reasons for the decision were the good adhesion and the reduced moisture values in the walls.

The problems in the Great Church in NL-1636 Schermerhorn were that large parts of the exterior walls showed discolouration and that the plaster was crumbling away. The test phase began on 31 October 2013. The aim was to find answers to the following questions: 1) What are the causes of these spalls on and in the walls? and 2) How can the walls be restored in an economical, structured manner?

Test setups were created for this purpose: Sample areas and measuring points. The basis for the decision was clear: will the coating on the sample surfaces adhere and can the moisture in the walls be reduced? The wall in the apse was chosen, where there were the biggest problems. Initial moisture measurements in October 2013 showed: the moisture in the exterior walls is not constant; there is no clear correlation between the different riser heights.

In November 2013, an analysis of the vapour permeability of the existing plaster was carried out. Sample plots were established in November 2013, and initial measurements were taken in February, May, August, and November 2014. In addition to supplying the materials, Coateq also provided technical support. The measurement series were extended until 2016.

Residential house in Portugal 01

Residential house in Portugal

By painting the interior with ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus, the surface temperatures of the walls and ceilings were quickly raised and the room air and wall humidity were reduced.

Mr. Jean-Paul Drauth provided measurement results from his home, about 60 km south of Porto, in April 2008. On 26.03.2008 he painted the ceiling and on 30.03.2008 the walls were coated with ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus. The wall construction is as follows: Reinforced concrete stud construction with fired hollow clay bricks. Structure from inside to outside: plaster 1 cm/ hollow clay bricks fired with large chambers, 30 cm / external plaster 1 cm / adhesive 1 cm / clay brick slips 2 cm.

Mr Drauth describes the measurement procedure as follows: “Have been looking for an average value at the various points (not the highest / not the lowest) to get a meaningful measurement, this then again accurately aimed at the various measurements, where previously the measurements changed relatively strongly as soon as you deviated from the specific measuring point; this has leveled out very much! At the moment you can deviate more than half a meter from the measuring point without even a tenth of a degree changing in the display!”

The series of measurements again proves: ClimateCoating® raises the surface temperatures, and at the same time there is an equalization – the sensation temperature rises. In addition, the room humidity is regulated and the wall is dehumidified.

“I am a qualified heating engineer and have no problems calculating a U-value, but, the inertia of the mass is not taken into account anywhere, so with the climate and construction here it can happen more often, e.g. at 17°C or higher outside temperature and very high humidity; the occupants freeze as the outside temperature control switches off the heating circuit.” When thinking of Portugal, one rather thinks of beach, sun and plenty of heat – but: also in Portugal or Spain there are cold winters, depending on the region.

“I have a three-sided glazed veranda (conservatory) with ClimateCoating® on the ceiling since 13 March 2008, constantly have at least 3 degrees more than outside, no matter what the weather is outside, almost always the sliding door open because of the pets and a feeling of well-being like never before; in contrast: with all neighbours the chimney smokes!”

For the evaluation of the measurement results Mr. Drauth corresponded with a Berlin building expert. The question was the suitability of the U-value theory: “I can only agree with what you write regarding the U-value. Question: Why does one feel more comfortable with ClimateCoating® with less room temperature and yet the temperature curve in the wall construction should be worse than without? When painting half of the ceiling I already noticed the effect, it was definitely no longer a cold radiator. According to my measurements, you can already see that at least the contact resistance inside must be wrong, because I had surface temperatures equal to room temperature or even higher! This can’t be understood at all with the normal calculation method, and if I hadn’t measured myself, I would assume a measurement error.”

Stelling van Amsterdam 05

Stelling van Amsterdam

Increase of surface temperatures, reduction of noise

Fort St. Aagtendijk is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “De Stelling van Amsterdam”. ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus was applied on behalf of the organization “Stadsherstel NV”.

The old, smudge-proof coating was fixed beforehand. As a result of coating with ClimateCoating® Interior, the following effects were observed: less sound, better heat distribution and thus no more cold walls.

Kindergarten in Vilnius 06

Kindergarten in Vilnius

Double-skin masonry 2 x 11 cm, cold winters. Instead of facade insulation with polystyrene on the advice of a German building expert: Core insulation with cellulose and ClimateCoating® inside and outside; Golden Globe Award 2011

Short summary
The kindergarten “Saules Gojus” (Sun Grove) is located on the outskirts of Vilnius. With approx. 500 m² the house offers space for up to 45 children. As part of the first renovation phase in 2004, core insulation made of cellulose flakes was blown into the air gap of the exterior walls. In the second phase, the interior and exterior were painted with the thermoceramic membrane technology ClimateCoating® to improve thermal insulation. As a result, heating costs were reduced and cooling times extended – with improved thermal comfort and a reduced risk of mould even in problem areas. In addition to long-lasting weather protection of the dehumidified wall, the coating protects against heat radiation in winter and heating up in summer.

Evaluation criteria

  • Project Objective:
    energetic retrofitting, max. Results with a small budget of a young family-run company (economic efficiency), durable ecological building materials with structural-physical and health safety.
  • Innovative approach:
    not doing what everyone around is doing – instead combining technologies/systems, using surface active coating.
  • Cost/Benefit:
    maximum upgrading of the building at modest financial cost (see also: project objective), long maintenance intervals, the objective (high benefit at low cost) was achieved.
  • Multiplicability:
    In principle, yes, although the individual case must always be examined – in this case the special feature was the core insulation, other combinations are also possible (cf. project “Wood fibre ETICS in Berlin”).
  • Environmental Sustainability:
    is given to a high degree, toxic and pollutant-free building materials, as a result emission reductions are given.

In the first stage of the renovation, the sanitary facilities and the entire electrical system were renewed and the house was adapted to the needs of the children. It was important to improve the energy efficiency of the exterior walls, which were double-shell masonry with an air gap of 7 cm and a U-value of 0.8 W/m²K. Although the U-value is not the only decisive factor for the energy balance of the building, it is nevertheless a parameter that must be taken into account in winter temperatures of around -20°C.

The expert advised against covering the façade with polystyrene panels as an ETICS, as was often and readily done throughout the country. One important reason is that it is considered absurd to build tighter from the inside out – even more so when it is known that calculations according to standards, including the Glaser method, do not produce realistic results (Hauser, 2003).

The U-value could be improved to 0.37 W/m²K by core insulation with EKOVATA cellulose flakes, whereby a decisive advantage is that in the end a fully sorption-capable wall construction with capillary conductivity is available.

In February, construction measures were discussed during a property inspection with the following focal points: Rainproofing of windows in the attic, plaster repairs to the façade, insulation of soffits, replacement of foam under the window plates, painting of the façade and interior, renewal of the south wooden gable, painting of the wooden gable aisle strips, reduction of vibrations in the grid ceiling above the basement.

On 11.02.2007 it was -23°C at the outskirts of Vilnius. On average, room temperatures of 19°C and wall surface temperatures of 16°C were measured. The measurements with the pyrometer for non-contact temperature measurement showed considerable temperature differences of the wall surface temperatures of the facade. This shows what the term “solar gains of opaque components” means: the heat flow from 20°C to -10°C is less than the heat flow from 20°C to -20°C.

In order to improve the energy quality of the exterior walls, the building expert advised the use of ClimateCoating®. Reasons for this include protection against solar load in summer, compensation of thermal bridges, protection against driving rain, improvement of thermal comfort. The practical benefits have proven this planning approach right, the following experience report is self-explanatory.

“We used ClimateCoating® for renovation work on our kindergarten in the summer of 2007, both inside and outside. While at the beginning we had to reheat in the middle of the night and during the day, the house can now be kept warm with two heatings, even at temperatures of -20 (January 2009). We are thrilled with the properties: despite the extreme Lithuanian conditions of -20°C in winter to almost 30 degrees in summer compared to Germany, ClimateCoating® does not fade and no cracks are visible at all, neither on the wood cladding nor on the plaster – a major problem of many paints in this country and observable on almost every corner when walking through Vilnius.”

References Energy Master House 09

Energy Master House

In this detached house, the combination of solid construction with ClimateCoating® ThermoProtect and infrared heating with ClimateCoating® ThermoPlus ensures an exemplary feel-good climate and outstanding energy efficiency. Measurement evaluations prove the effect of solar gains.

The energy master house is located in Eidenberg, Austria, at 683 m above sea level. It has 53 cm thick walls of 50 brick masonry, plastered inside and out. The exterior wall is coated with ClimateCoating® on the outside and inside, and the rooms are heated with a ceiling or infrared heating system. A detailed description is available on the website

The combination of a proven construction method with highly efficient systems and products creates a pleasant, comfortable indoor climate. The exterior wall coating reduces heat loss and protects against driving rain, among other things. The combination of IR-radiation heating and IR-reflective interior coating significantly reduces heating costs through improved thermal comfort.

The concept implemented here – apart from PV and solar thermal energy – does not really fit in with the theoretical distorted picture provided by some regulations on thermal insulation, including the associated calculations. However: nothing is more honest than practice. This is shown by the example of a measurement series evaluation of solar gains via the outer wall.

From 10:00 to 17:00 (the numbers are approximate), the effects of solar irradiance are seen from 09:00 to 15:00. Not only do solar gains occur through the transparent components (heat gains through the windows) – there are solar gains from the opaque components. The plastered brick wall is opaque (i.e. not transparent), it absorbs heat which is transported inwards. This is a flow of heat from the outside to the inside as a result of solar gains.

From 10:00 to 15:00 the temperature rises 10 cm below the surface. From 13:00 to 17:00, such a high thermal barrier (heat = temperature + material) is built up that the room temperature does not exceed the temperature of this barrier. Without a temperature gradient there is according to. First law of thermodynamics no heat flow. This means: no heat loss via the outer wall for 4 hours from 13:00.

For the U-value theory, one has set the storage fraction to 0 in Fourier’s heat conduction equation; not because it is so in practice, but so that the theory can be calculated: q = U (θi -θe).

The censored Wikipedia explains: “The definition equation assumes stationary conditions and is not suitable for calculating the respective instantaneous heat flux density q(t) at time-varying temperatures. For example, during a heating process, due to the heat storage capacity of the component, distortion effects occur which are not taken into account when attempting to calculate the surface heat flows using the equation. In the subsequent cooling process, however, the error occurs in the opposite sense. If heating and cooling are symmetrical to each other, the two errors cancel out.”

From this argumentation it is deduced that in the end it makes no difference whether the heat flow is considered stationary or transient. For this purpose, measurement graphics are shown where a transient case is simulated by means of modulated temperature. This is the appropriate measuring device for the theory, but the outer wall is exposed to a few more influencing variables than just the outside temperature.

Weather isn’t just about the temperature outside either. In addition, there is sometimes a large difference between arithmetic and geometric mean (average and median).

The graph for the evaluation of the measurement series explains this clearly: the heating process is faster, the cooling process is slower. This is illustrated by the slopes of the yellow and blue lines (no symmetry). This delay is due to the storage capacity. This means: energy gain. Thermo-Shield Exterior reduces energy losses via the façade and supports solar gains via the exterior wall (“endothermic effects”).